BMS Architecture
A current-limiting resistance (Relectrolyte) attributable
to the battery chemist

A current-limiting resistance (Rmetal) attributable to the
internal connections

A self-discharge resistance (Rleakage) which causes the
battery to lose charge even when no load is connected
Each Power Agent BMS sensor generates a digitally
synthesized sinusoidal AC test signal (Itest) which passes
through the battery terminals in order to measure the
battery's admittance.  "Admittance" is a composite
measurement of all the battery's internal resistances Each
Power Agent BMS sensor generates a digitally synthesized
sinusoidal AC test signal (Itest) which passes through the
battery terminals in order to measure the battery's
admittance.  "Admittance" is a composite measurement of
all the battery's internal resistances (including Relectolyte,
Rmetal, and Rleakage,) including an apparent internal
capacitance.  The Power Agent BMS site controller unit
communicates with each o f the sensors to collect these
admittance measurements, along with battery voltage and
post temperature.
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Specifications.
Power Agent Systems LLC • 589 Bethlehem Pike, Montgomeryville, PA 18936215-310-6243 ph• 302-341-3193 fax • www.poweragentsystems.com
The Power Agent Systems' BMS core components
include the BMS sensor, controller and interface.  The BMS
monitoring sensor has a microprocessor, which implements
a couple of very important, patent-pending DSP functions
creating digital sine wave synthesis. This synthesis is a low
frequency sinusoidal test signal generated within the battery
by stimulating it with a digitally derived pulse-width
modulated current source.

The battery's internal resistance cause this low frequency
sinusoidal test current to develop a sinusoidal voltage, which
is measured by the sensor's correlating synchronous
detection process.

A lead acid battery can be characterized by an equivalent
circuit of three resistances that limit its performance:
The Power Agent Intelligent Equalization System is a
patent-applied-for by-product of our core intelligent digital
sensor technology. This process takes advantage of each
sensor’s ability to produce a digitally programmable
current in a battery while simultaneously monitoring the
battery’s voltage.

The battery monitoring system’s controller (A) is the
“brains” of the charge-balancing process. The controller,
by virtue of its knowledge of the terminal voltage of each
battery in the string, makes a determination that a battery-
to-battery voltage difference exists which exceeds a user-
defined threshold. The controller computes the “mean” of
the battery voltages within the string. Once the mean is
determined, the controller pre-loads each of the sensors
(B) within the string with information that the sensors will
use to autonomously control a balancing process, until the
controller checks them again. Typically, the controller
checks each sensor every 2-10 seconds.

Numerous safeguards are built in to prevent undesirable
loss of control, including fixed and programmable
minimum voltage limits, fixed and programmable
maximum working times, and fixed and programmable
current limits. The controller monitors and manages the
balancing process, and so it knows how hard each sensor
is working to keep its associated battery balanced. There
are user-defined alarm thresholds which can be specified
so that the controller will automatically send an SNMP
alarm trap if any battery’s charge is getting out of control.

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here for IES product specifications
A
B
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